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Organizational Behavior:

  • Ability- An individual's capacity to perform the various tasks in a job.


  • Affect intensity- Individual differences in the strength with which individuals experience their emotions.

  • Affective commitment- An emotional attachment to the organization and a belief in its values.

  • Anchoring bias- Tendency to fixate on initial information.

  • Anthropology- The study of societies for the purpose of learning about human beings and their activities.


  • Attitudes- Evaluative statements, either favorable or unfavorable, concerning objects, people, or events.

  • Attribution theory of leadership- Leadership is merely an attribution that people make about other individuals.

  • Authority- Rights inherent in a managerial position to give orders and expect the orders to be obeyed.

  • Availability bias- Tendency for people to base their judgments on information that is readily available to them.

  • Bonuses- Reward employees for recent performance rather than historical performance.

  • Centralization- The degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in the organization.

  • Chain of command- Unbroken line of authority that extends from the top of the organization to its lowest echelon and clarifies who reports to whom.

  • Cohesiveness- the degree to which members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group.

  • Cohorts- Individuals who hold a common attribute.

  • Collectivism- A tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are part to look after them and protect them.

  • Command group- Individuals who report directly to a given manager.

  • Confirmation bias- Represents a specific case of selective perception.

  • Conflict- Process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about.

  • Consideration- The extent to which a person is likely to have job relationships that are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees' ideas, and regard for their feelings.

  • Continuance commitment- The perceived economic value of remaining with an organization compared to leaving it.

  • Core-plus plans- Consists of a core of essential benefits and menu like selection of other benefit options from which employees can select and add to the core.

  • Deep acting- Trying to modify one's true inner feelings based on display rules.

  • Defensive behaviors- Reactive and proactive behaviors to avoid action blame, or change.

  • Demands- Responsibilities, pressures, obligations, and even uncertainties that individuals face in the workplace.

  • Departmentalization- Basis by which jobs are grouped together.


  • Displayed emotions- The emotions that the organization requires workers to show and considers appropriate in a given job.

  • Distributive theory- Employee's perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals.

  • Downward communication- Communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a lower level.


  • Emotional intelligence- One's ability to detect and manage emotional cues and information.

  • Emotional labor- An employee's expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work.


  • Emotions and moods- Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and often lack a contextual stimulus.


  • Employee engagement- Individuals' involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for, the work they do.


  • Ethical dilemmas- Situations in which organizations are required to define right and wrong conduct.


  • External equity- External competitiveness of an organization's pay relative to pay elsewhere in its industry.


  • Felt emotions- An individual's actual emotions.


  • Filtering- A sender's purposely manipulating information so it will be seen more favorably by the receiver.


  • Flexible spending plans- Allow employees to set aside up to the dollar amount offered in the plan to pay for particular service.


  • Formalization- Degree to which jobs within the organization are standardized.


  • Friendship group- Groups that form because the individual members have one or more common characteristics.


  • Gain sharing- Formula-based group incentive plan.


  • Group- Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.


  • Halo effect- When we draw a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic.


  • Hindsight bias- Tendency for us to believe falsely, after an outcome is actually known, that we would have accurately predicted the outcome.


  • Illusory correlation- When people associate two events that in reality have no connection.


  • Impression management- Process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them.


  • Individualism- The degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as a member of groups and believe in individual rights above all else.


  • Informal groups- Alliances that are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined.


  • Information overload- When the information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity.


  • Initiating structure- Refers to the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of employees in search for goal attainment.


  • Intellectual ability- Mental activities such as thinking, reasoning, and problem solving.


  • Interactional justice- An individual's perception of the degree to which he or she is threated with dignity, concern, and respect.


  • Interest group- Those who affiliate to attain a specific objective of shared interest.


  • Internal equity- The worth of the job to the organization.


  • Intuitive decision making- An unconscious process created out of distilled experience.


  • Job involvement- Measures the degree to which people identify psychologically with their job and consider their perceived performance level important to self-worth.


  • Job satisfaction- Positive feeling about one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.


  • Knowledge management (KM)- the process of organizing and distributing an organiation's collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time.


  • Lateral communication- Communication takes place among members of the same work group, among members of work groups at the same level, among managers of the same level, or among any horizontally equivalent personnel.


  • Leadership- the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or a set of goals.


  • Learning- Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.


  • Learning organization- An organization that has developed the continuous capacity to adapt and change.


  • Machiavellianism- Is one who is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends justify means.


  • Merit-based pay plans- Based on performance appraisal ratings.


  • Modified piece-rate plan- Employees earn a base hourly wage plus a piece-rate differential.


  • Modular plans- Predesigned packages of benefits.


  • Motivation- The processes that account for an individual's intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.


  • Narcissism- Has a grandiose sense of self-importance, requires excessive admiration, has a sense of entitlement, and is arrogant.


  • Negotiation- Process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them.


  • Normative commitment- An obligation to remain with the organization for moral or ethical reasons.


  • Norms- Acceptable standards of behavior that are shared by the group's members.


  • Operant conditioning- Behavior is a function of its consequences.


  • Organizational behavior- Studies the influence that individuals, groups, and structures have on behavior within organizations.


  • Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)- Discretionary behaviors that contribute to organizational effectiveness but are not part of an employee's formal job description.


  • Organizational commitment- The state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.


  • Organizational culture- System of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations.


  • Organizational justice- An overall perception of what is fair in the workplace.


  • Perceived organizational support (POS)- The degree to which employees believe the organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being.


  • Perception- Process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions to give meaning to their environment.


  • Personality- Sum of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others.


  • Piece-rate pay- Employees are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed.


  • Political behavior- Activities that are not required as part of one's formal role in the organization but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization.


  • Power distance- Degree to which people ina country accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally.


  • Procedural justice- The preceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards.


  • Profit-sharing plans- Organization wide programs that distribute compensation based on some established formula designed around a company's profitability.


  • Projection- The tendency to attribute one's own characteristics to other people.


  • Psychological empowerment- Employees' beliefs in the degree to which they affect their work environments, their competence, the meaningfulness of their jobs, and the perceived autonomy in their work.


  • Psychology- The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals.


  • Randomness error- Tendency to believe we can predict the outcome of random events.


  • Rituals- Repetitive sequences of activities that express and reinforce the key values of the organization.


  • Role conflict- When an individual finds that compliance with one role requirement may make it more difficult to comply with another.


  • Role expectations- How others believe you should act in a given situation.


  • Role identity- Certain attitudes and actual behaviors are consistent with the role.


  • Role perception- Our view of how we're supposed to act in a given situation.


  • Roles- A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit.


  • Selective perception- Any characteristic that makes a person, object, or event stand out will increase probability that it will be perceived.


  • Self-managed work teams- Groups of employees who perform highly related or interdependent jobs and take on responsibilities of their former supervisors.


  • Shaping behavior- When we attempt to mold individuals by guiding their learning in graduated steps.


  • Skill-based pay plans- Sets pay levels on the basis of how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can do.


  • Social learning- Learning through both observation and direct experience.


  • Social psychology- Focuses on peoples' influences on another.


  • Sociology- The study of people in relation to their social environment or culture.


  • Status- Socially defined positions or rank given to groups or group members by others.


  • Stereotyping- When we judge someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or she belongs.


  • Surface acting- Hiding one's inner feelings and forgoing emotional expressions in response to display rules.


  • Task group- Represent those working together to complete a job task.


  • Uncertainty avoidance- The degree to which people in a country perfer structured over unstructured situations.


  • Upward communication- Communication that flows to a higher level in the group or organization.


  • Utilitarianism- When decisions are made solely on the basis of their outcomes or consequences.


  • Values- Basic, enduring convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.


  • Variable-pay program- Bases a portion of an employee's pay on some individuals and/or organizational measure of performance.


  • Virtual teams- Use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members to achieve a common goal.


  • Whistle-blowers- Individuals who report to the press or government agencies any unethical or illegal practices of their employees.


  • Work group- A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each member perform within his or her area of responsibility.


  • Workforce diversity- heterogeneous mix of people in terms of gender; age, race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation.


Managing People And Organizations